What if Gravity is a Double Copy of Other Forces?


Until As physicists know, nature speaks two incomprehensible languages: one for gravity and one for everything else. The curves of the space-time fabric tell planets and humans how to fall, while all other forces come from quantum particles.

Albert Einstein first discussed gravity in terms of space-time curves in his general theory of relativity. Most theorists believe that gravity propels us through particles, called gravitons, but attempts to also write Einstein’s theory using quantum rules have generally turned out to be foolish. The disintegration between the forces goes deeper, and the complete unification of the two grammars seems far-fetched.

In recent years, however, a confusing translation tool known as “double copy” has proven the strange practice of making certain gravitational entities, such as gravitons and black holes, more more simply the same amount.

“There’s a schism in our picture of the world, and it’s what bridges that gap,” said Leron Borsten, a physicist at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.

While the unproven mathematical relationship between gravity and gravitational force does not have a clear physical interpretation, it allows physicists to deduce almost impossible gravitational calculations and signs of a common foundation that underlies all forces.

John Joseph Carrasco, a physicist at Northwestern University, said that anyone who spends time on double copy will come to believe that “it’s rooted in a different way of understanding gravity.”

Gravity Versus Rest

In one part of basic physics standing is divided into electromagnetic force, weak force and strong force. Each of the forces has its own particle carrier (or carrier) and some quality to which the particle responds. For example, electromagnetism uses photons to propel charged particles, while a strong force is sent by gluons that act on particles with a property called color.

Physicists can describe any event involving this force as a series of particles scattering each other. The activity can start with two particles approaching each other, and end with two particles flying away. There are, in principle, many interactions that can occur in between. But theorists have learned how to do that frighteningly accurate predictions by prioritizing the simplest, most likely sequences.

On the other side of the divide stands gravity, which rebels against this kind of treatment.

Gravitons react on their own, giving looping, like Escher’s equations. They also increase a promiscuity that can make a bunny blush. If the gravitons mix, any number of them can come out, complicating the priority plot used for the other forces. Just writing formulas for simple gravitational activity is a slog.

But the double copy method serves as an obvious back door.

Zvi Bern and Lance Dixon, afterwards joined by Carrasco and Henrik Johansson, the method was developed in 2000, which is evolving old work on rope theory, a candidate quantum theory of gravity. In string theory, O -shaped loops representing gravitons act like S -shaped pairs of strings corresponding to carriers of other forces. The researchers found that the relationship also holds point particles, not just hypothetical threads.

In the sum of all possible interactions that can occur during a particle scattering event, the mathematical term representing each interaction can be divided into two parts, such as the number 6 which is divided by 2 × 3. The first part captures the nature of the force measured; for high energy, this term relates to a property called color. The second term expresses the motion of particles – the “kinematics.”

To make the double copy, you discard the color term and replace it with a copy of the kinematics term, making 2 × 3 to 3 × 3. If 6 plots the result of a strong force that event, then the double copy tells us that 9 will correspond to some similar graviton event.

The double copy has an Achilles heel: Before implementing the method, theorists must also write the additional term kinematics in a form similar to the color term. This formatting is also difficult and may not always be possible because the cost is refined to include more surrounding interactions. But if the kinematics force, getting the result of gravity is as easy as changing from 2 × 3 to 3 × 3.



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